Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14.

The School Education

A Uniform structure of school education, the 10+2 system has been adopted by all the States and Union Territories of India. However, within the States and the UTs, there are variations in terms of the Level of School Education, Duration (In Years) prescribed for pre-primary Level/age restriction for admission to Class-I and details of +2 Educations in colleges, Prescribed Medium of Instruction in different classes, Classes in which Hindi/English/State language is taught as a Compulsory/Optional Subject, Academic year, Working day and Vacation period, Public Examination by Levels of School Education, Syllabus Followed in State Government and various Schemes implemented by the States/UTs to increase access equity, inclusion & quality. This publication is an attempt to provide information on these aspects for all the States and Union Territories. All the States except J K and Jharkhand have provided the data. Therefore, data in respect of these two States has repeated from last year

Levels of School Education

The Primary level of school education consists of classes I-V, i.e. of five years’ duration in 21 States (viz; Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand) and 5 U.Ts. (viz; Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Delhi and Puducherry).

Primary level of school education consists of classes I-IV i.e., of four years’ duration in 7 States (viz. Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Mizoram, and West Bengal) and in UT of Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Lakshadweep. The Middle Stage of school education comprises classes VIVIII i.e., of three years’ duration in 19 States (viz; Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand) and In 5 UTs (viz; Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Delhi and Puducherry). Classes V-VII i.e., of three years’ duration comprises Middle Stage of school education in 5 States (viz; Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Kerala and Maharashtra). Followed by classes VI-VII i.e., of two years’ duration in 2 States (viz; Karnataka and Odisha) and classes V – VIII i.e., of four years’ duration in West Bengal, Mizoram and in UT of Dadra & Nagar Haveli. The High / Secondary Stage of school education consists of classes IX-X i.e., of two years’ duration in 21 States (viz; Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal) and in 7 UTs (viz; Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Puducherry) whereas this stage comprises of classes VIII to X i.e. of three years’ duration in 7 States (viz; Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Odisha).


However, the Higher Secondary/ Senior Secondary stage of school education comprising classes XI-XII (10+2 pattern) i.e., of two years’ duration is available in all the States/UTs though in some States/UTs these classes are attached to Universities/Colleges.

Duration (In years) prescribed for Pre-primary level / age restriction for admission to class I

The minimum age for admission to class-I for Primary School stage is generally 5 and 5+years or 6 and 6+ years. The minimum age for admission to Class I is 5 and 5+year in 20 States (viz; Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal) and in 6 UTs. (viz; Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Delhi, and Puducherry). The minimum age for admission to class I is 6 and 6+ years in states of Bihar, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Punjab, Sikkim, and Tripura and in UT of Lakshadweep. As regards to Pre-primary level of education , age is not prescribed in most of the States except for Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tripura, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Puducherry. State/UTs-wise details on duration (In years) prescribed for Pre-primary level, age restriction for admission to class-I and whether +2 education is imparted in colleges or not is given in statement II.

+2 Education in Colleges

In seven States viz; Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Odisha, +2 education is imparted in colleges. State-Wise detail is given in Statement II

Prescribed Medium of Instruction in different classes

The mother tongue or the regional language is the prescribed medium of instruction at the primary stage of education in most of the States/UTs. Facilities for studying in a medium other than the regional language considerably vary in different States and Union Territories. The detailed information on prescribed medium of instruction at Primary, Middle, High/Higher Secondary stages for all States/UTs is given in Statement-III.

Teaching of Hindi, English and State language

Teaching of Hindi is compulsory at al levels of Education in all the States and Union Territories except in Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Puducherry. Teaching of English is compulsory in all the States/UTs. Teaching of State language is compulsory in all the States and Union Territories except States/UTs of Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Delhi. However, classes in which teaching of Hindi/English/state Language is compulsory differ from State to State and UTs.


eaching of Hindi is Compulsory in Classes I-XII in 10 States (Viz: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal). It is compulsory in Classes I-X in the States and Union Territories of Arunachal Pradesh, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and NCT of Delhi. Teaching of Hindi is compulsory in other States and UTs up to different level of education as shown in Statement-IV.


Teaching of English is Compulsory in Classes I-XII in 13 States Viz: Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and West Bengal and 4 UTs Viz: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Puducherry. Teaching of English is Compulsory up to different level of education in 15 States viz: Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and in 3 UTs Viz: Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu and NCT of Delhi. Teaching of English is compulsory in other States and UTs up to different level of education as shown in Statement-IV.


Teaching of State language is compulsory in classes I-XII in 9 States Viz: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Mizoram, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal and in 2 UTs. Viz: Daman & Diu, Puducherry. Teaching of State language is Compulsory up to different level of education in 8 States Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Punjab and UTs in Lakshadweep. Details are available in Statement-IV.

Academic year, Working days and Vacation Period

The number of working days of School Education in a year is generally more than 200 days in majority of the States/UTs. States/UTs-wise details of the number of working days are given in statement-V. The academic session begins from the month of June in States/UTs. Viz: Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and in 3 UTs. Viz: Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu and Puducherry. Majority of the States/UTs avail long vacation period during the summer season while in some hill States, this falls in the winter months. The State/UTs-wise information on academic year and vacation periods is given in Statement-V.

Public Examinations

In all the States/U.Ts., Public Examinations are conducted at the end of X and XII Classes by the respective State Boards of High / Secondary/ Higher/ Senior Secondary Education. The minimum age for the High / Secondary School Examination varies from 14+ to 16+ years in 22 States viz; Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and West Bengal and in 4 UTs viz; Daman & Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Puducherry. Other States/UTs either do not have age restrictions or it has not been indicated. The minimum age for Higher Secondary / Senior Secondary School Examination varies from 16+ to 18+ years in 17 States viz: Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,Meghalaya, Odisha, Punjab, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and Tripura and in 4 UTs. Viz: Daman & Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Puducherry. In other States/UTs, either there is no age restriction prescribed or even if it exists, it has not been indicated. In some States/UTs, the first Public Examination is conducted at the Primary and/or Middle stage of School Education. State/UT-wise details on public examinations at various stages of school education are given in Statement–VI.

Syllabus Followed in State Government

Majority of the States and Union Territories have followed syllabus by the State Government. Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Rajasthan, Sikkim and in 3 UTs. Viz: A & N Islands, Chandigarh and Delhi follow the syllabus of Central Board of Secondary Education/ National Council of Education Research and Training in schools. States of Haryana, J&K, Karnataka, Tripura and UTs of Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Lakshadweep use Syllabus of NCERT/CBSE as well as the syllabus prescribed by State Governments and Boards. The State/UT-wise details on Syllabus followed by schools are given in Statement VII.

Schemes implemented by the States/UTs to increase access Equity, Inclusion & Quality

Except for the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Meghalaya and Odisha and in UT of Chandigarh where only central government sponsored schemes are being implemented, in all the remaining States/UTs various State sponsored as well as central government sponsored schemes are being implemented. Statement VIII indicates State-wise details of the schemes, which are specific to each State.

School Boards

The Council of Boards of School Education in India (COBSE) is a voluntary association of all the Boards of School Education in India. It works in close collaboration with Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, other national level apex educational organizations and agencies like the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) and National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE).

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)

The Uttar Pradesh (a state in India) Board of High School and Intermediate Education was the first Board set up in India in the year 1921 with jurisdiction over Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior. In 1929, the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana, was established. Later, boards were established in some of the states. But eventually, in 1952, the constitution of the board was amended and it was renamed Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). It was in the year 1962 finally that the Board was reconstituted. The main objectives were to serve the educational institutions more effectively, to be responsive to the educational needs of those students whose parents were employed in the Central Government and had frequently transferable jobs. All schools in Delhi and some other regions came under the Board. It was the function of the Board to decide on things like curriculum, textbooks and examination system for all schools affiliated to it. Today there are thousands of schools affiliated to the Board, both within India and in many other countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.

National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)

NIOS is "Open School" to cater to the needs of a heterogeneous group of learners up to pre-degree level. It was started as a project with in-built flexibilities by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) in 1979. In 1986, the National Policy on Education suggested strengthening of Open School System for extending open learning facilities in a phased manner at secondary level all over the country as an independent system with its own curriculum and examination leading to certification.
Consequently, the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India set up the National Open School (NOS) in November 1989. The pilot project of CBSE on Open School was amalgamated with NOS. Through a Resolution (No. F.5-24/90 Sch.3 dated 14 September 1990 published in the Gazette of India on 20 October 1990), the National Open School (NOS) was vested with the authority to register, examine and certify students registered with it up to pre-degree level courses. In July 2002, the Ministry of Human Resource Development amended the nomenclature of the organization from the National Open School (NOS) to the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) with a mission to provide relevant continuing education at school stage, up to pre-degree level through Open Learning system to prioritized client groups as an alternative to formal system, in pursuance of the normative national policy documents and in response to the need assessments of the people, and through it to make its share of contribution:

  • To universalisation of education
  • To greater equity and justice in society
  • To the evolution of a learning society.

Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE)

The Council has been so constituted as to secure suitable representation of: Government of India, State Governments/Union Territories in which there are Schools affiliated to the Council, the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian Education, the Association of Indian Universities, the Association of Heads of Anglo-Indian Schools, the Indian Public Schools’ Conference, the Association of Schools for the ISC Examination and members co-opted by the Executive Committee of the Council.
In 1952, an All India Certificate Examinations Conference was held under the Chairmanship of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Minister for Education. The main purpose of the Conference was to consider the replacement of the overseas Cambridge School Certificate Examination by an All India Examination. This set the agenda for the establishment of the Council.
In October 1956 at the meeting of the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian Education, a proposal was adopted for the setting up of an Indian Council to administer the University of Cambridge, Local Examinations Syndicate's Examination in India and, to advise the Syndicate on the best way to adapt its examination to the needs of the country. The inaugural meeting of the Council was held on 3rd November, 1958.
In December 1967, the Council was registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
In 1973, the Council was listed in the Delhi School Education Act 1973, as a body conducting "public" examinations.

International Baccalaureate (IB)

Founded in 1968, the International Baccalaureate® (IB) is a non-profit educational foundation offering four highly respected programmes of international education that develop the intellectual, personal, emotional and social skills needed to live, learn and work in a rapidly globalizing world. Schools must be authorized, by the IB organization, to offer any of the programmes. To learn about the authorization process, visit our Become an IB World School section. The IB has a hard-earned reputation for high standards of teaching, pedagogical leadership and student achievement. We work with schools, governments and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment.

State Board

State Name Board Name Official Link
ANDHRA PRADESH BOARD OF INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION (ANDHRA PRADESH) http://www.bieap.gov.in/
BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION (ANDHRA PRADESH) http://www.bseap.org.in/
AP OPEN SCHOOL SOCIETY http://www.apopenschool.org/
ASSAM ASSAM HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION COUNCIL http://www.ahsec.net/
BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION, ASSAM
ASSAM SANSKRIT BOARD
BIHAR BIHAR SCHOOL EXAMINATION BOARD http://biharboard.ac.in/
BIHAR BOARD OF OPEN SCHOOLING & EXAMINATION http://www.bbose.org/
BIHAR STATE MADRASA EDUCATION BOARD http://www.bsmeb.co.in/
BIHAR SANSKRIT SHIKSHA BOARD
CHHATISGARH CHHATISGARH BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION http://cgbse.nic.in/
CHHATISGARH STATE OPEN SCHOOL http://www.cgsos.in/
CHHATISGARH SANSKRIT BOARD, RAIPUR
CHHATISGARH MADRASA BOARD http://www.cgmadarsaboard.com/
GOA GOA BOARD OF SECONDARY AND HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION http://gbshse.gov.in/
GUJARAT GUJARAT SECONDARY AND HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION BOARD http://www.gseb.org/
Gujarat state open school
HARYANA BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION HARYANA http://www.bseh.org.in/
Haryana open school
HIMACHAL PRADESH HIMACHAL PRADESH BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION http://hpbose.org/
Himachal Pradesh state open school
JAMMU & KASHMIR J & K STATE BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION http://www.jkbose.co.in/
J & K state open school
JHARKHAND JHARKHAND ACADEMIC COUNCIL, RANCHI http://jac.nic.in/
KARNATAKA KARNATAKA SECONDARY EDUCATIONEXAMINATION BOARD http://kseeb.kar.nic.in/
Karnataka state open school
KERALA KERALA BOARD OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION http://dhsekerala.gov.in/
Kerala State open school
MADHYA PRADESH BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION MADHYA PRADESH http://mpbse.nic.in/
M. P. STATE OPEN SCHOOL http://www.mpsos.nic.in/
MAHARISHI PATANJALI SANSKRIT SANSTHAN https://mpss.mponline.gov.in/
MAHARASHTRA MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF SECONDARY AND HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION https://mahahsscboard.maharashtra.gov.in/
MANIPUR BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION, MANIPUR http://bsem.nic.in/
COUNCIL OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION, MANIPUR http://www.cohsem.nic.in/
MEGHALAYA MEGHALAYA BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION http://www.mbose.in/
MIZORAM MIZORAM BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION http://mbse.edu.in/
NAGALAND NAGALAND BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION http://www.nbsenagaland.com/
ODISHA COUNCIL OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION, ODISHA http://chseodisha.nic.in/
BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION, ODISHA http://bseodisha.nic.in/
PUNJAB PUNJAB SCHOOL EDUCATION BOARD http://www.pseb.ac.in/
RAJASTHAN BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION RAJASTHAN http://rajeduboard.rajasthan.gov.in/
Rajasthan state open school http://www.rsos.rajasthan.gov.in/
TAMIL NADU STATE BOARD OF SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS
TRIPURA TRIPURA BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION http://tbse.in/
TELANGANA TELANGANA STATE BOARD OF INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION http://bie.telangana.gov.in/
TELANGANA STATE BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION http://bse.telangana.gov.in/
UTTAR PRADESH BOARD OF HIGH SCHOOL & INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION UTTAR PRADESH http://upmsp.nic.in/
UTTARAKHAND UTTARAKHAND BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION http://ubse.uk.gov.in/
WEST BENGAL WEST BENGAL BOARD OF PRIMARY EDUCATION http://www.wbbpe.org/
WEST BENGAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION http://www.wbbse.org/
WEST BENGAL COUNCIL OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION http://www.wbchse.nic.in/
WEST BENGAL BOARD OF MADRASAH EDUCATION http://www.wbbme.org/
WEST BENGAL COUNCIL OF RABINDRA OPEN SCHOOLING http://www.twbcros.org/