The right to education includes a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have not completed primary education. In addition to these access to education provisions, the right to education encompasses the obligation to rule out discrimination at all levels of the educational system, to set minimum standards and to improve the quality of education.

Education Polices and Schemes

The essence and role of education articulated in the National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986/92 continues to be relevant even 25 years after its formulation. National Policy on Education (NPE) states:
  • In our national perception education is essentially for all. This is fundamental to our all-round development.
  • Education has an acculturating role. It refines sensitivities and perceptions that contribute to national cohesion, a scientific temper and independence of mind and spirit - thus furthering the goals of socialism, secularism and democracy enshrined in our Constitution.
  • Education develops manpower for different levels of the economy. It is also the substrate on which research and development flourish, being the ultimate guarantee of national self-reliance.
  • In sum, education is a unique investment in the present and the future. This cardinal principle is the key to the National Policy on Education.

Elementary Education

The role of Universal Elementary Education (UEE) for strengthening the social fabric of democracy through provision of equal opportunities to all has been accepted since the inception of our Republic. With the formulation of NPE, India initiated a wide range of programs for achieving the goal of UEE through several schematic and program interventions.
  • Right to Education
  • Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
  • Mid Day Meal
  • National Achievement Survey(NAS)
  • Mahila Samakhya Programme
  • Scheme to Provide Quality Education in Madrasas (SPQEM)
  • Scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutes (IDMI)

Secondary Education

The policy at present is to make secondary education of good quality available, accessible and affordable to all young persons in the age group of 14-18.
  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) Integrated
  • Girls Hostel Scheme
  • ICT at Schools
  • Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage
  • Scheme of Vocational Education
  • Model Schools Scheme
  • National Means-cum Merit Scholarship Scheme
  • National Incentive to Girls
  • Appointment of Language Teachers

Adult Education

The Programme of Action (POA) to operationalize National Policy on Education, 1986, inter-alia, envisaged development of a genuine partnership between the Government and non- Government Organizations (NGOs) and stipulated that government would take positive steps to promote their wider involvement in eradication of illiteracy by providing due support to them. To promote Adult Education, particularly in 15-35 age group, through voluntary sector, the Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, has been providing support to Voluntary Agencies (VA) through two separate schemes, namely (i) Assistance to Voluntary Agencies in the field of Adult Education and (ii) Jan Shikshan Sansthans. The former is conceptualized as an overarching programme to encourage innovation and creativity in literacy and continuing education. It includes establishment of State Resource Centers for technical and academic support to adult education. Jan Shikshan Sansthans, on the other hand, provide vocational education skill development training to those having no or rudimentary level of education.
  • Saakshar Bharat
  • Jan Shikshan Sansthan